A Transformative Education Model For Disaster-Resilient Child

Limitation And Study Forward. This study only look at  two Kampong and School in Indonesia, but in the fact there are many Kampong and School that always exposed to flood. Therefore it, it cannot be used to generalize the experience  of Kampong and School in other area. Comparing for many more  Kampong and School for further study will  enrich understanding of disaster resilient child in Indonesia as well as other country.
Introduction. Asian  area  has  highest  disaster  rate  including  natural  and  man-made  disasters  (Stromberg,  2007).  In  2011,  Asian  area experienced 137 natural disaster incidences or 45 percent of total disasters in the world and at the same time contributed 85% of total disaster victims (Guha, 2013). Recalling that Asia has about 60 percents of world populations (United ,2011), disaster problem is a serious one, including the one occurring in Indonesia. National Agency for Overcoming Disaster’s Data  (2017)  shows  that  the  number  of  disaster  incidences  in  Indonesia  increases  almost  threefold  in  the  last  15  years (2002-2016). More than 90% of disaster incidences in Indonesia were due to flood and landslide, by which more than 28 millions people were affected during 2012-2016 (Amri, 2017). 
Sociologically, man-made disaster instead results in more victims compared with the natural one does (Wisner, 2003). The explanation  of  natural  factor  becomes  dominant  in  triggering  disaster incidence,  for  example,  geotectonic,  climate,  and other biological factor (Dilley, 2006;  Yasuhara, 2012;  Tobin, 1997). Such factor social as conflict, poverty and inequality often  result  in  disaster  vulnerability,  including  the  product  of  social,  political,  and  economic  environment  resulting  in disaster  problem  complexity.  Asia,  including  Indonesia,  has  a  complex  disaster  problem exacerbated  with  the  effect  of climate change (Prevention, 2014; Guha, 2013).
A variety of disasters has different ―triggers‖ coming from human activity and behavior either directly or indirectly. Those two  triggers  are  due  to  interaction  three  between  overlapping  systems:  human  social  and  cultural  systems,  built environment, and natural environment where they live (Youngman, 2009). All of disaster effects are related directly to how and  where  people  govern  themselves.  Disaster  vulnerability  increases  in  Indonesia,  particularly  due  to  coastal  area development, population growth, industrialization, and urbanization. 
Sociologists  distinguish  many  types  of  vulnerability,  particularly  physical  (e.g.  living  near  likely  damaged  dam  or embankment  or  in  the  hill  slope  vulnerable  to  landslide) and  social  vulnerabilities.  Social  vulnerability  is  a  condition stemming  from  social  inequality,  affecting  the  disaster  victims’  ability  of  securing  their  life,  surviving,  and  or ―reawakening‖  from  disaster,  including  race,  class,  sex,  age,  disability,  health  status,  and  etc.  Physical  and  social vulnerabilities are often intertwined complexly at individual, household, or society level. Climate change and its effect in Asia,  particularly  Indonesia,  are the  good  example  of  how  physical  and  social  vulnerabilities  can  be  connected  to  each other,  and  how  man  action  and  natural  disaster  are  related  complexly  (Islam  and  Lim,  2015).  Departing  from  that vulnerable situation, disaster handling and overcoming strategy and policy should be formulated.
Indonesia has  497,576 schools or 75% of total school distributed in 34 provinces located in vulnerable-to-disaster area or having  physical  vulnerability.  Mount  Sinabung  explosion,  Aceh  Tsunami,  and  Jogja  Earthquake  disasters  led  to  the damaged school buildings thereby harming the teaching-learning process at school. Meanwhile, it took time to reconstruct schools, so that students should learn in emergency places. When the natural disaster occurs at school hour, school citizens including  students  and  teachers  will  be  the  victims  due  to  non -standardized  building  condition.  Considering  the  fact, Ministry  of  National  Education  arranged  a  Disaster-Safety  Education  Unit  Program  (Satuan Pendidikan Aman Bencana, thereafter called SPAB) (Amri,2017). 
SPAB  program  is  aimed  at  realizing  a  disaster  resilience  education  thereby  requiring  a  child-centered  comprehensive attempt. This attempt is accomplished by means of understanding that children have specific needs in dealing with disaster hazard,  so  that  they  should  be  invited  to  participate  actively  according  to  their  capacity  and  interest.  The  attempt  of realizing the disaster resilience school is accomplished through three pillars: safe school facility, disaster management at school,  and  disaster risk  education,  prevention,  and reduction  (Amri,  2017).  Children  become  a  group  vulnerable  to  be exposed with disaster due  to either their weak physical factor or limited knowledge on disaster. As such, the attempt of empowering children in order to have disaster resilience is very desirable.
Surakarta  is  an  area  vulnerable  to  annual  flood  disaster.  Considering  the  mapping  made  by  Local  Agency  for  Disaster Management  (Badan Penanggulangan Bencana  Daerah,  thereafter  called BPBD)  of  Surakarta,  there  are  25  out  of  51 Kelurahans (villages) in Surakarta City belonging to flood-vulnerable areas. Those flood-vulnerable  Kelurahans (Village) distributed  in  Bengawan  Solo  River,  Pepe  River,  Anyar  River,  Jenes  River,  and  Premulung  River  watersheds (S_zunariyah,2017).  BPBD  still  needs  accurate  data  related  to  population,  evacuation  path  orientation,  refuge  location,public kitchen location, and medical management location. As a part of response to disaster management, Indonesian Red Cross  (Palang Merah  Indonesia,  thereafter  called  PMI)  establishes  Community-Based  Disaster  Risk  Management (Siaga Bencana Berbasis Masyarakat, thereafter called SIBAT) located in KelurahansSewu, Sangkrah and Semanggi areas. 
Meanwhile, BPBD launched Disaster Resilience Village on March 2018 as the response to flood disaster befalling most Surakarta  areas.   Nevertheless,  the  two  communities  have  not  put  children  on  important  position  in  the  programs formulated.  Therefore,  Disaster -Safety  Education  Unit  (SPAB)  should  be  integrated  into  disaster  management  and overcoming community established. An approach used is through disaster education, prevention, and risk reduction using transformative learning model about disaster mitigation for students.

Literature Review. Transformative  learning  originates  from  Paulo  Freire’s  critical  education  paradigm  not  agreeing  with  the  positivism  of science  considering  that  science  is  something  positive,  constant,  and  exact  (Freire,  1986;  Freire_Shor,  1986). Transformative learning is conducted widely to survive and to adapt to disaster and other environmental change. In this context,  learning  is  conceived  as  an  attempt  of  changing  knowledge,  believe,  behavior,  and  attitude.  Transformative learning leads to the change of individual’s reference framework, can be identified as a set of concepts, values, feelings, and responses to condition and a product of experience all at once that can fine an individual’s life. Individual reference framework consists of cognitive construct supporting the fundamental change of values, attitude, and behavior important in developing life strategy amid the threat of disaster and other environmental change (Sharpe,2016).
The  effect  of  transformative  learning  is  an  individual’s  ability  of  reflecting  any  challenge  and  problem  encountered. Learning outcome can be seen  from the change of individuals’ values and behavior related to learning experience, what he/she has learnt and how to reinforce it. Transformative learning enables the students to question their assumption today and previously  as  to  which  one has  potency  to  change as the  product  of  experience.  So,  the  outcome  of  transformative learning  is  to  build  individual’s  freedom,  autonomy,  and  responsibility  to  the  ability  of  moving  from  critical  study  on experience to the real action (Armitage , 2008; Meziraw ,2009).
Paulo  Freire  in  his  book  entitled  Pedagogy  of  the  oppressed  (Freire,1986)  mentions  that  in  transformative  learning approach  the  learning  participants  have  active  ability  of  plannin g  unilaterally,  choosing  material  considered  as  useful, thinking  the  best  way  to  write, to  analyze,  and  to  conclude, and  benefiting  from  the learning,  so  that a  critical room  is established  about  economic,  political,  ideological,  gender,  environment,  and  h uman  right  structures.  Transformative learning  process  is  put  onto  social  change  system  framework  and  functions  to  be  an  independent  process  for  social transformation. 
Departing from that assumption, this research aims to describe the transformative learning practice conducted by students in  the  attempt  of  reducing  and  preventing  disaster  risk.  Transformative  learning  is  conducted  to  enable  the  students  to produce knowledge on disaster flood, to reflect the experience of those affected with flood disaster , to change their value and behavior to disaster in order to be disaster -resilient children. Thus, the attempt of reaching cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects can be realized.

Methodology. This research was taken place in Elementary Schools located in KelurahansSewu and Semanggi areas, Surakarta, having SIBAT community so that SPAB program can be integrated. Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach was chosen as it can put human beings to be a main factor in the study on disaster, because PAR consists of investigation, action, and reflection  (Kemmis,2005).  PAR  model  was  based  on  sociological  conception  that  disaster  has  roots  and  is  constructed socially  (Wisner,2003).  It  can  be  explained  in  two  steps:  firstly,  vulnerability  is  constructed  through  a  series  of  social decisions taking into account the access to power and resource, proximity to hazard, built environment, political decision, and  social  relation;  and  secondly,  its  process  is  screened  through  cultural  network  and  others  that  in  turn  defines  how people perceive and respond to the event affecting them (Islam, 2015). 
In this model, hazard is viewed as ―triggering‖ event only, interacting with the vulnerability of hazard-vulnerable areas to create disaster. In PAR model, the development of  vulnerability consists of three components: cause, dynamic pressure, and  unsafe  condition.  The  cause  is  inculcated  historically  and  structurally  into  society  with  limited  access  to  power, structure, resource, and ideology of political and economic systems. It creates some dynamic pressures within society; in the  same  way,  dynamic  pressure  plays  an  important  part  in  producing  unsafe  condition – the  mixed  product  is vulnerability. Vulnerability should be taken into account in applied disaster practices to release the vulnerable people fromdynamic  pressure.  Thus,  practitioners  applying  it  can  identify  variables  leading  to  the  increased  vulnerability,  an d  as  a result develop variables that can reduce vulnerability (Asgary,2011).
This  action  research  was  conducted  in  three  steps:  knowledge  production  by  children  concerning  potential  disaster  and analysis on disaster vulnerability likely occurring surrounding them, using illustrative picture technique. The next step is critical  reflection  on  types  of  disaster  and  effect  resulting  from  either  natural  or  man -made  disaster  using  docudrama technique  in  which  each  of  children  would  play  certain role  in a  drama about  disaster. The  last  step  was  to  arrange an action plan based on the result obtained in knowledge production. Action plan was accomplished by means of arranging evacuation  map,  meeting  point  development  utilizing  the  existing  resource,  and  practicing  its  use  through  disaster simulation. Those three steps were taken to build the students’ powerfulness in dealing with disaster . 
Discussion/Analysis. Children empowerment in disaster mitigation is a preliminary step in building a disaster-conscious community. One of its examples is disaster mitigation in the scheme of Disaster -Safety Education Unit (SPAB). Mitigation is a series of attempts taken  to  reduce  disaster  risk  (earthquake,  tsunami,  flood,  and  other  natural  disaster)  in  the  form   of  either  physical infrastructure  construction  or  growing  the  consciousness  of  and  improving  the  ability  of  dealing  with  disaster (Rekompak JRF). Coburn  et al.stated that ―mitigation is defined as taking some actions (measures) in order to reduce the effect  of  a  hazard  before  the  hazard  occurs‖.  The  activities  in  pre-disaster  stages  closely  related  to  term  disaster mitigation, constituting the attempt of minimizing the effect resulting from disaster (Coburn, 1994).
Disaster mitigation involves action planning and implementation to reduce the effect risk of a disaster conducted before the disaster  occurs,  including  preparedness  and  long  term  measures  to  reduce  risk,  action  to  be  done  to  reduce  the  risk  of disaster. Thus, when the disaster occurs, the effect resulting can be minimized. Those actions include, among others: (1) reengineering and  construction actions,  involving the actions  producing  stronger  construction  structure more resistant to earthquake disaster and those creating a structure functioning to be safeguard against earthquake disaster; (2) institutional actions and disaster mitigation management also require certain procedural  action and organization. Significant reduction achieved in potential disaster takes a long time. 
Effective  disaster  mitigation  should  have  three  main  elements:  hazard  assessment,  warning,  and  preparedness (Coburn,1994)  as explained below. (1) Hazard assessment is required to identify the threatened population and asset, and the level of threat against disaster hazard. This assessment needs knowledge on the characteristics of disaster source in thepast. (2) Warning is required to warn all people or community members about the threatening disaster (such as tsunami due to  earthquake,  volcanic  mudflow  due  to  volcanic  explosion,  and  etc.  (3)  Preparedness,  the  activity  in  this  category  I  s dependent  on  previous  mitigation  elements  (hazard  assessment  and  warning),  requiring  knowledge  on  the  areas  likely affected by disaster and on warning system to find out when evacuation should be done and when they should go home after the situation has been safe.
Disaster mitigation learning conducted  currently still uses traditional learning method focusing on theory and knowledge. Learning model encounters two important challenges: the ability of motivating students to express their experience with disaster. Learning model plays a key role in improvin g the students’ interest and participation  (Fujiwara,  2012). Without experiencing the disaster simulation condition actually, students can make assessment only based on theory and conceptual knowledge when dealing with disaster (Lave, 1991; Wenger, 1998). Many  studies  showed  that  students  receiving  experience-based  learning  model  are  more  motivated  significantly (Appelman,2005;Crawford,  1984;  Gee,  2003;  Prensky,  2003;  Salen,  2004).  Using  Learning media  in the  form  of  game, children  can  conceive  disaster  mitigation  through  learning  while  playing.  The  experience  with  simulation  game  can  be used to practice the children’s motor development and to improve their conception and respond in the attempt of reducing disaster risk.
This  disaster  mitigation  using  transformative  learning  was  conducted  in  10-11  year  Elementary  School  students.  This transformative  learning  model  about  disaster mitigation  was  divided  into  three  stages  and  ex plained three  aspects  all at once. In knowledge production (cognitive) stage, this learning model emphasized on students’ ability of producing their knowledge on disaster they have ever experienced through illustrative picture technique. In this stage, each of students will make  drawing  (picture)  based  on  the  disaster  experience  they  have  ever  encountered.  In  addition,  children  could  also identify and map asset and object potentially affected with hazard. Each of children would have varying experience stories about disaster and varying hazard assessment on asset and object existing surrounding. Experience-based learning is the learning method putting the students in the past imagination. In the experience, students were asked to answer and to find out how  everything  can run  without  teachers’ help and  guide. To  get  solution  themselves,  students unconsciously  work harder along the process, so that they learned to think independently in disaster situation (Kebritchi, 2008).
The  attempt  of  producing  students’  knowledge  on  hazard assessment  was  taken  by  growing awareness  of  and  sense of belonging to asset and resource existing surrounding. Knowledge underlies the establishment of belief and belief underlies the consideration to determine  attitude. Knowledge production is a phase in which an individual’s knowledge authority is not higher than others. Knowledge on disaster is dominated by government so far, through a series of rules and policies, so that disaster in children’s perspective obtains inadequate attention. Similarly, children’s ability of identifying hazard and new knowledge becomes a part of social process for the children to be familiar with their surrounding environment. It will highly  support  the  children’s  process  in  designing  their  need  and  interest  related  to  the  disaster  risk  prevention  and reduction program.
Knowledge production was conducted interactively and dialogically between students and facilitators, the process in which facilitator should listen to many children’s  experience with and knowledge on disaster. In education context, dialog process becomes an important part of emancipatory knowledge model. Dialogic learning model can produce non-one-dimensional knowledge,  just  like  positivism  knowledge  (Freire,1986).  Emancipatory  knowledge  model  builds  on  dialectic  relation aiming to criticize knowledge and to explain ideological interest behind social reality form and, then to contribute to create the  form  of  reality  based  on  democracy  and  justice  principles.  Emancipatory  knowledge  aims  to  deal  with mechanistic perspective of technical knowledge and to realize self-reflection in order to generate reformation. This process builds on critique and action, and meaning contained, as the part of historical process in criticizing social reality and taking action to change  it.  Learning  process  is  designed to  improve  critical  awareness  and  personal  freedom needed  to  create  individual self; it is how to make the students powerful. 
Paulo  Freire  firmly  shows  that  the  knowledge  production  process  should  be  conducted  dialectically  and  related  to knowledge  reception  process.  The  separation  of  knowledge  from  its  creation  process  results  in  a  learning  process  that removes  important  points  necessary  to  develop  inside  students  such  as  critical  reflection,  curiosity,  dialog,  and  so  on (Freire_Shor,  1986).  Otherwise, learning process  not  conducted  dialectically  will make  the  critical  subjectivity  infertile, because it makes the students oriented to legitimating and to reinforcing the existing knowledge and social system  without providing critical vision the need to articulate their voice and to create their future history  (Gintis, 1972).
In  critical  reflection  (affective)  stage,  learning  about  disaster  mitigation  is  conducted  using  traditional  game  and docudrama.  Traditional game  chosen  was  GobakSodor  game  giving the  students  an understanding  on  the importance  of maintaining  solidarity  and  cooperation  between  the  members  of  community  during  disaster  incidence.  Solidarity  and cooperation becomes an element composing social capital of community in managing and reducing disaster risk. As such, people can be powerful and independent. Meanwhile,  docudrama is an instrument in affective domain to practice and to simulate disaster management and prevention. Students will feel as if dealing with disaster through role and responsibility distribution technique. As such, the awareness of taking initiative during disaster exposition can be practiced so that risk and effect of disaster can be mitigated.
In  this  action  plan  preparation  stage,  it  can  be  found  the  importance  of  inculcating  understanding  on  rescuing  measure during  the  disaster incidence. The  understanding  is  effective  to  be  done  and  understandable to  students.  Moreover, it is accomplished by utilizing the resources existing surrounding and related directly to their life. Waste previously becoming the problem is then changed into resource that  can help the rescuing system during disaster incidence.
Learning about  disaster  warning  will  give  the  students an experience  with  taking necessary  action (measures)  when  the disaster  occurs,  for  example,  when  earthquake  occurs,  they  will  take  table  as  refuge  or  protect  their  head  with  certain object.  In  addition,  warning  process  with  this  disaster  simulation  method  enables  the  students  to  practice  disaster  risk prevention  and  reduction  measures  in  order  to  minimize  the  number  of  victim.  This  stage  is  respon ded  to  very enthusiastically  by  the  students  as  it  is  conducted  with  game  and  fun.  Thus,  the  understanding  and  knowledge  can  be absorbed easily.
Action plan (psychomotor) approach was accomplished through organizing evacuation path map in school and developing meeting point by utilizing resources owned including waste and unused object. It is very effective to do recalling that their schools do not have evacuation path map and meeting point becoming the important instrument during disaster incidence. Based on children’s knowledge product and previous hazard assessment, children are equipped with a skill of developing evacuation  path  map  and  meeting  point  using  ecobridge  method.  By  designing  the  need  for  supporting  infrastructure during disaster incidence, students can practice the use of infrastructure through disaster simulation activity.
Action plan approach in disaster management will be determined by an ability of identifying types of hazard and potential threat  existing.  This  stage is  the  culmination  of  the  process  of  transforming  cognitive  and affective  knowledge  into real action to reduce disaster risk. All process was conducted by and for students, in which the change becomes the objective to be  achieved.  The  process  of  building  dialog  and  interaction  between  students  becomes  a  part  of  being  together  and becoming,  constituting  the  precondition  for  transformation.  It  becomes  a  new  and  innovative  learning  process  because conventional learning system uses monolog technique with teachers being the learning  source. As such, students can also\be  learning  source  and  subject  of  the  process  of  transforming  existing  knowledge.  Transformative  learning  can  connect cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains among students. Transformative learning can create a space for the students to be the subject and center of all disaster prevention and reduction attempt. Students can build self-confidence through knowledge  production.  Thus,  the  learning  process  will  run  more  completely  and  social  change  will  occur,  thereby producing children who can deal with disaster resiliently.
Conclusion. Child-based disaster mitigation is very desirable because children are vulnerable physically and have needs different from other community groups’. Giving preliminary knowledge to students  is the precondition for the implementation of disaster mitigation  learning.  The  attempt  of  building  critical  awareness  among  children  group  is  taken  through  transformative learning model to change the children into those dealing with disaster resiliently.  Transformative learning is conducted in 3 domains:  cognitive,  affective,  and  psychomotor,  each  of  which  involves  knowledge  production,  critical  reflection,  and action plan stages.
In  this  knowledge  production,  each  of  children  can  identify  the  type  of  potential  disaster  vulnerabilities  existing surrounding,  including  physical  and  social  vulnerabilities.  This  stage  can  produce  varying  knowledge  on  disaster  from many perspectives. In addition, the identification of physical and social capacity can be done as  a part of an attempt of organizing  action  plan.  Critical reflection  can  produce  ability  and awareness  of  awakening  and alertness during  disaster incidence.  This  stage  can  grow  critical  attitude  to  reduce  the  effect  of  disaster.  Furthermore,  in  action  plan  stage,  the children’s ability of organizing action plan in the form of evacuation path map and meeting point can develop by utilizing resources they have particularly, used object or waste. 
Using the existing resources, children can be able to build their  self-confidence and independency without dependency on others. Independency and self-confidence are reinforced with the practice of dealing with disaster through simulation held. Through  those  three  stages, the  knowledge  can give  the  students  a  capital to  determine the action  they  can take  during disaster incidence. Dialogical and interactive process enables the students not only to have knowledge but also to be able tochange  the  disaster  reality.  Production  and  establishment  processes  run  concomitantly  so  that  students  can  think reflectively,  create  curiosity,  and learn  to  build  equal and egalitarian  dialog.  Thus,  it  becomes  the  space  for reinforcing knowledge and social system existing with the ability of designing action as the response to hazard threat   due to disaster existing surrounding us.

Siti Zunariyah, Argyo Demartoto, Akhmad Ramdhon
Humanities & Social Science Reviews eISSN: 2395-6518, Vol 6, No 3, 2018, pp 55-60

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